Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease that is difficult to treat. During its development in the body, carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed and insulin synthesis decreases by the pancreas, as a result of which glucose ceases to be absorbed by the cells and is deposited in the blood in the form of microcrystalline elements. The exact reasons for which this disease begins to develop, scientists have not yet been able to establish. But they have identified risk factors for diabetes mellitus that can trigger the onset of this disease in both the elderly and young people.
A few words about pathology
Before considering the risk factors for diabetes, it is necessary to say that this disease has two types, and each of them has its own characteristics. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by systemic changes in the body, in which not only carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed, but also the functionality of the pancreas. For some reason, its cells no longer produce insulin in the right quantity, as a result of which the sugar that enters the body along with food is not subjected to splitting processes and, accordingly, cannot be absorbed by the cells.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease, with the development of which the pancreas functionality is preserved, but due to impaired metabolism, the cells of the body lose insulin sensitivity. Against this background, glucose simply ceases to be transported into the cells and is deposited in the blood.
But whatever processes occur in diabetes mellitus, the result of this disease is one - a high level of glucose in the blood, which leads to serious health problems.
The most common complications of this disease are the following conditions:
- hyperglycemia - an increase in blood sugar levels outside the normal range (more than 7 mmol / l);
- hypoglycemia - a decrease in blood glucose levels outside the normal range (below 3.3 mmol / l);
- hyperglycemic coma - an increase in blood sugar levels above 30 mmol / l;
- hypoglycemic coma - lowering blood glucose levels below 2.1 mmol / l;
- diabetic foot - reducing the sensitivity of the lower extremities and their deformation;
- diabetic retinopathy - reduced visual acuity;
- thrombophlebitis - formation of plaques in the walls of blood vessels;
- hypertension - increased blood pressure;
- gangrene - necrosis of the tissues of the lower extremities with the subsequent development of an abscess;
- stroke and myocardial infarction.
Common complications of diabetes
These are not all the complications that the development of diabetes mellitus for a person at any age is fraught with. And in order to prevent this disease, it is necessary to know exactly what factors can provoke the onset of diabetes and what measures include prevention of its development.
Type 1 diabetes and its risk factors
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes) is most often detected in children and young people aged 20-30. It is believed that the main factors of its development are:
- genetic predisposition;
- viral diseases;
- intoxication of the body;
- unhealthy diet;
- frequent stress.
In the occurrence of DM1, the main role is played by genetic predisposition. If one of the family members suffers from this disease, then the risk of its development in the next generation is approximately 10-20%.
It should be noted that in this case we are not talking about an established fact, but about a predisposition. That is, if a mother or father is sick with type 1 diabetes, this does not mean that their children will also be diagnosed with this disease. Predisposition suggests that if a person does not carry out preventive measures and leads a wrong lifestyle, then they have great risks of becoming a diabetic for several years.
When diagnosing diabetes in both parents at once, the risk of the disease in their children increases several times
However, in this case it is necessary to take into account that if both parents suffer from diabetes at once, then the probability of its occurrence in their child increases significantly. And it is often in such situations that this disease is diagnosed in children as early as school age, although they do not yet have bad habits and lead an active lifestyle.
Viral diseases are another reason for which T1DM can develop. Especially dangerous in this case are diseases such as mumps and rubella. Scientists have long proved that these diseases adversely affect the work of the pancreas and lead to damage of its cells, thus reducing the level of insulin in the blood.
It should be noted that this applies not only to children already born, but also to those who are still in the womb. Any viral diseases that a pregnant woman suffers can trigger the onset of T1D in her child.
Intoxication of the body
Many people work in factories and enterprises that use chemicals that have a negative effect on the work of the whole organism, including the functionality of the pancreas.
Chemotherapy, which is used to treat various oncological diseases, also have a toxic effect on the cells of the body, so their implementation also increases the probability of developing T1D in humans several times.
Malnutrition is one of the most common causes of diabetes. The daily diet of a modern person contains a huge amount of fats and carbohydrates, which puts a heavy load on the digestive system, including the pancreas. Over time, its cells are damaged and insulin synthesis is disturbed.
Improper nutrition is dangerous not only the development of obesity, but also disruption of the pancreas
It should also be noted that due to malnutrition, T1DM can also develop in children aged 1–2 years. And the reason for this is the early introduction into the diet of the baby cow's milk and cereals.
Stress are provocateurs of various diseases, including T1D. If a person is under stress, a lot of adrenaline is produced in his body, which contributes to the rapid processing of sugar in the blood, resulting in hypoglycemia. This condition is temporary, but if it occurs systematically, the risks of the onset of T1DM increase several times.
Type 2 diabetes and its risk factors
As mentioned above, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) develops as a result of a decrease in the sensitivity of cells to insulin. This can also occur for several reasons:
- genetic predisposition;
- age-related changes in the body;
- gestational diabetes.
In the development of diabetes mellitus, hereditary predisposition plays an even greater role than with diabetes mellitus. Statistics show that the risk of this disease in the offspring in this case is 50% if T2DM was diagnosed only in the mother, and 80% if the disease was detected immediately in both parents.
When identifying parents of diabetes mellitus, the probability of having a sick child is significantly higher than with diabetes
Age-related changes in the body
Doctors consider diabetes mellitus to be a disease of the elderly, since it is in them that it is detected most often. The reason for this - age-related changes in the body. Unfortunately, with age, internal organs "wear out" under the influence of internal and external factors and their functionality is impaired. In addition, with age, many people develop hypertension, which further increases the risks of developing diabetes mellitus.
Obesity is the main cause of the development of T2DM in both the elderly and young people. The reason for this is the excessive accumulation of fat in the cells of the body, as a result of which they begin to draw energy from it, and they no longer need sugar. Therefore, with obesity, the cells no longer absorb glucose, and it is deposited in the blood. And if a person in the presence of overweight also leads to a passive lifestyle, this further enhances the likelihood of T2DM at any age.
Obesity provokes not only CD2, but also other health problems.
Medication gestational diabetes is also called "pregnant diabetes," since it develops right at the time of pregnancy. Its occurrence is caused by hormonal disorders in the body and excessive pancreatic activity (she has to work for two). Due to increased loads, it wears out and stops producing insulin in the right quantities.
After giving birth, this disease goes away, but it leaves a serious mark on the health of the child. Due to the fact that the pancreas of the mother ceases to produce insulin in the right quantity, the pancreas of the child begins to work in an accelerated mode, which leads to damage to its cells. In addition, with the development of gestational diabetes, the risk of obesity in the fetus increases, which also increases the risk of developing T2DM.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that can be easily prevented. To do this, it is enough to constantly carry out its prevention, which includes the following activities:
- Proper nutrition. Human nutrition should include many vitamins, minerals and proteins. Fats and carbohydrates should also be present in the diet, because without them the body can not function normally, but in moderation. Especially you should beware of easily digestible carbohydrates and trans fats, since they are the main cause of overweight and further development of diabetes. As for infants, parents should make sure that the supplement given is maximum useful for their body. And what and in what month you can give the baby, you can learn from the pediatrician.
- Active lifestyle. If you neglect the sport and lead a passive lifestyle, you can also "earn" SD. Human activity contributes to the rapid burning of fat and energy consumption, resulting in an increased need of cells for glucose. In passive people, the metabolism slows down, resulting in increased risks of diabetes.
- Regularly monitor blood sugar levels. This rule applies especially to those who have a hereditary predisposition to this disease, and people who are 50 years old. To monitor blood sugar levels, it is not at all necessary to constantly go to the clinic and get tested. Simply purchase a blood glucose meter and conduct blood tests yourself at home.
It should be understood that diabetes is a disease that is not treatable. During its development, one has to constantly take drugs and inject insulin. Therefore, if you do not want to always be in fear for your health, lead a healthy lifestyle and promptly heal the diseases you have. This is the only way to prevent the occurrence of diabetes and to preserve your health for many years!