Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition of the body in which there is an increased sugar content in the blood (namely, in its serum).
The corresponding deviation varies from mild, when the level is exceeded by about 2 times, to extremely severe - x10 or more.
The severity of pathology
Modern medicine allocates 5 degrees of hyperglycemia, which are determined by how much serum glucose is exceeded:
- from 6.7 to 8.2 mmol - mild;
- 8.3-11 mmol - medium;
- more than 11.1 mmol is heavy;
- the content in serum of more than 16.5 mmol of glucose causes the state of diabetic coma;
- the presence of more than 55.5 mmol of sugar in the blood leads to hyperosmolar coma.
These indicators are generalized and may vary depending on the individual characteristics of the organism. For example, they differ in people who have disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
Established causes of hyperglycemia
The causes of hyperglycemia are varied. The main ones are:
- severe pain syndromes that cause the body to produce an excessively large amount of thyroxine and adrenaline;
- loss of a significant amount of blood;
- inadequate psychological stress;
- lack of vitamins C and B1;
- carbohydrate-rich food abuse;
- disturbances in hormone production.
As for the main cause of hyperglycemia itself (biochemistry), it is only one - impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Hyperglycemia is most often characteristic of another pathology - diabetes.
At the same time, the occurrence of the corresponding state in the period when the specified disease has not yet been diagnosed may indicate its origin. Therefore, people facing this pathology are strongly advised to undergo a full examination.
An eating disorder can provoke the onset of the pathological condition in question.
In particular, people with bulimia nervosa are in a high risk of diabetes, in which a person experiences a strong feeling of hunger, which eats a very large amount of carbohydrate foods.
The body can not cope with this, which leads to an increase in sugar. Also, hyperglycemia is observed with frequent stresses. The results of numerous studies show that people who often experience negative psychological states are more likely to encounter elevated sugar in blood serum.
In addition, the presence of hyperglycemia can be a factor that provokes the occurrence of strokes and heart attacks, as well as increases the likelihood of death of the patient when one of them occurs. An important observation: frequent causes of fasting hyperglycemia are the reasons for the transferred stress. The only exceptions are pathological disorders in the production of hormones.
This condition may occur as a result of the use of certain drugs.
In particular, it is a side effect of certain antidepressants, protease inhibitors and anticancer drugs.
Now, about the hormones that cause hyperglycemia.
The most common cause of hyperglycemia is insulin, which acts as a regulator of glucose in the body. Excessive or insufficient amount of it leads to increased sugar. Therefore, hormone hyperglycemia develops in diabetes mellitus most often.
Now about the excess of what hormones can cause hyperglycemia. This is a thyroid BAS. When the body produces an excessive amount of such hormones, there are disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, which, in turn, leads to increased sugar. The adrenal glands also control glucose levels. They produce: sexually active substances, adrenaline and glucocorticoids.
The first are mediators in the metabolism of the protein, and, in particular, increase the volume of amino acids. From it, the body produces glucose. Therefore, if a lot of sex hormones, it can lead to hyperglycemia.
Glucocorticoids are hormones that compensate for the action of insulin. When there are failures in their production, there may be violations in carbohydrate metabolism.
Adrenaline acts, among other things, as an arbiter in the production of glucocorticoids, which means that raising or lowering it can affect sugar. In many ways, precisely for this reason, stress can lead to hyperglycemia.
And also: the hypothalamus is responsible for producing adrenaline. When the glucose level drops, it sends the appropriate signal to the adrenal glands, the receipt of which provokes the release of the required amount of adrenaline.
The symptomatology of this pathology is varied and depends on both the degree of glucose elevation and the individual characteristics of the patient.
There are two main symptoms that always appear when hyperglycemia occurs.
In the first place - this is a strong thirst - the body tries to get rid of excess sugar by increasing the amount of fluid. The second sign - frequent urination - the body tries to remove excess glucose.
A person in a state of exacerbation of hyperglycemia may also experience unreasonable fatigue and loss of visual acuity. The condition of the epidermis often changes - it becomes drier, leading to itching and problems with wound healing. Often there are irregularities in the work of the cardiovascular system.
With strongly elevated sugar, disturbances of consciousness necessarily occur. The patient may rave and faint. Upon reaching a certain threshold, a person falls into a state of coma.
First Aid and Therapy
When identifying the first signs of this condition, it is first necessary to measure the sugar level with a special apparatus.
If the sugar level is below 14 points, it is not necessary to take any special measures - it is enough to provide the body with the amount of water it needs (about 1 liter for 1 hour).
Then you need to take measurements every hour or when deterioration. Water supply may be difficult due to the weakness or dimness of the patient’s consciousness.
In such situations, it is forbidden to inject liquid into the mouth by force, as a result of this, it is more likely to get into the respiratory tract, which will cause the person to choke. There is only one way out - emergency call. While she goes, the patient needs to create the most comfortable conditions.If the glucose content exceeds 14 mmol per liter, it is imperative to inject insulin in the prescribed dosage.
Entering the drug should continue in increments of 90-120 minutes to normalize the condition.
When hyperglycemia in the body almost always increases the concentration of acetone - it must be lowered.
To do this, it is necessary to perform a gastric lavage with the aid of means intended for this, or using soda solution (5-10 grams per liter of water).
Symptoms and principles of first aid for hyperglycemia:
The hospital will conduct a full examination, identify the causes of the disease and prescribe the correct therapy. The treatment itself is directed to two things: maintaining the normal functioning of the body and eliminating the root causes of pathology. The first, in turn, in most cases involves the introduction of insulin (on a regular basis or during periods of exacerbation).