Insulin is a pancreatic hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans.. If the body is diagnosed with a deficiency of these substances, diabetes mellitus of the first type develops. Some people’s cells are immune to this hormone, which causes type 2 diabetes.
If you do not start the time of drug therapy, a person can face serious complications, or even death. An insulin test will help to constantly monitor the concentration of these biologically active substances in the blood.
It is responsible for the metabolism and a number of other functions, such as:
- The spread of glucose in muscle and fatty tissues;
- Increased cell membrane permeability;
- The accumulation of proteins in the body;
- The breakdown of fats into energy.
Increased activity of enzymes intended for the decomposition of glucose in the liver.
Insulin is an important component of all metabolic processes in the body. Without it, glucose was not processed and accumulated in the blood, which leads to hyperglycemic coma. This is a dangerous condition that requires immediate medical attention. It can easily be fatal.
When should I take an analysis?
Insulin is a hormone that shows how well the pancreas works. Even if you have no reason to worry about this body, it is still recommended from time to time to undergo such an examination.
This is necessary due to the following reasons:
- Due to the sharp increase in body weight;
- In the presence of genetic predisposition;
- When drinking alcohol and smoking;
- In the presence of cardiovascular diseases;
- With improper, unbalanced and inadequate nutrition;
- When dry mouth appears;
- If you began to notice that the skin began to itch and peel off;
- If the wounds began to heal poorly;
- There was a constant feeling of tiredness and weakness.
How is the analysis done?
Currently, there are two ways to determine the amount of insulin in the blood: a fasting test and a glucose tolerance test. In the first case, venous blood is collected, which is studied under laboratory conditions.
In the second, the patient takes a finger blood test three times:
- On an empty stomach After that, he drinks a solution of 75 mg of glucose;
- An hour later;
- And an hour later.
Rules for blood donation
In order for the insulin test to show the most accurate indications, it is necessary to follow a number of simple rules before donating blood.
They include the following recommendations:
- It is necessary to donate blood on an empty stomach, it is recommended to fast for at least 8 hours.
- The day before the fence give up all intense physical exertion.
- 12 hours before the study, abandon the use of products that contain sugar.
- For 8 hours - stop eating, you can drink non-carbonated mineral water.
- For 2 days, go on a special lean diet, which involves a complete rejection of harmful products.
- For 2 hours do not smoke.
- For a week, refuse to take medication. However, before this you need to consult with your doctor to clarify whether it will harm you.
Consider that hormones do not affect the level of insulin in the blood. Therefore, menstruation should not become an obstacle for this method of diagnosis in women. To determine this substance in the blood is taken venous blood.
Any violation of the normal concentration of glucose in the blood can speaks of serious disorders in the body. If a double excess is diagnosed, the doctor will diagnose obesity. If a serious deficiency is determined, then the development of insulin coma is possible.
It is very important to know the exact rate of insulin in order to control the flow of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. This indicator is the most important in determining hypoglycemia, especially if it develops during gestation.
The amount of insulin determined in blood plasma is of the greatest diagnostic importance. Sometimes it is examined in serum, but such a study is not always fair, because it is seriously affected by therapy with anticoagulants. To get the most accurate results, it is recommended to pass a glucose tolerance test.
Normal values for this study are presented in the table.
|Time after taking glucose, minutes.||Insulin Concentration, mIU / L|
|6 - 24|
|30||25 - 231|
|60||18 - 276|
|120||16 - 166|
|180||4 - 18|
A zero indicator of human insulin indicates the development of type 2 diabetes. Usually, its course is complicated by obesity, because of which glucose tolerance will be seriously impaired: after taking the solution, the concentration of sugar in the blood reaches its limit values, after which it does not normalize for a long time.
Due to an insufficient concentration of insulin in a person’s blood, his blood glucose level rises. This leads to starvation of cellular structures, since they can not accumulate a sufficient amount of useful substances.
Also suffer metabolic processes, disrupted protein and fat balance. Muscles and a liver do not receive enough glycogen because of what the normal metabolism is not supported.
Such a violation can be recognized by the following symptoms: a person begins to complain of constant hunger, thirst, frequent urination, and nervous system disorder - his well-being significantly worsens. Many people for a long time do not notice such deviations, because of which serious complications develop.
Among the causes of insufficient insulin in the blood can be identified:
- Infectious and bacterial diseases;
- Sedentary lifestyle;
- Intense physical exertion;
- Brain damage;
- Emotional overstrain;
- The use of harmful products;
- Too frequent meals;
- Cardiovascular diseases.
If you do not succeed in the initial stages of embarking on a comprehensive and comprehensive treatment, a person may develop diabetes. When diagnosed at the initial stages of development, this deficiency is easily blocked by using a balanced low-calorie diet, insulin therapy in pills, as well as other drugs that restore the pancreas.
Do not forget about the need to constantly maintain immune abilities, as well as drugs that dilate blood vessels.
Excess insulin rates
An excessively high level of insulin in human blood is also extremely dangerous. Because of such a violation in the body can cause serious pathology, which will lead not only to serious complications, but even fatal.
If we do not start treating this disorder in time, the person will sooner or later face the development of type 2 diabetes. It arises from the fact that cellular structures do not allow insulin to pass through, which is why it remains in the bloodstream. It becomes useless, because it can not process food entering the body.
Among the reasons due to which insulin in the blood can become higher than normal, emit:
- Sports, hard physical labor;
- Emotional overstrain;
- An overabundance of growth hormone;
- Liver pathology;
- Diabetes mellitus type two;
- The formation of tumors on the adrenal glands;
- Abnormalities in the adrenal glands;
- The presence of insulinoma in the body;
- Impaired insulin tolerance;
- Pancreas cancer;
- Polycystic ovary;
- Diseases of the pituitary gland.
To say exactly what caused the increase in the concentration of insulin in the blood, can only the attending physician. He will conduct advanced diagnostics, on the basis of which he will draw conclusions. Only in this way will it be possible to prescribe an effective and comprehensive treatment of pathology.